Top 10 Things You Should Know

The human brain is by far the most complex object in the entire cosmos, with more neurological compounds in it than positively charged particles in the entire universe. With this amazing level of processing power, there is only one thing to do with it – use it.

10. Drylands

Where is the driest place on earth?

Sahara Desert? Nevada? In fact, it is located in Antarctica. Parts of this continent have not known rain for over two million years. Technically, a desert is land that receives less than 254mm of rainfall per year. The Sahara receives 25 mm, in Antarctica the situation is about the same, however, in some of its regions it has not rained for thousands of years.

Therefore, Antarctica is the driest place on Earth. In addition, it can claim to be the windiest place on Earth, because the wind speed there reaches 320 km / h. This is the fastest speed ever recorded.

9. Huge!

What is the largest living organism on earth?

Elephant? Blue whale? Tyrannosaurus Rex? The largest living organism is a mushroom, and not a rare species. The “honey fungus” or Armillaria ostoyae is very common and will probably grow in your garden too. Nevertheless, let’s hope that it will grow in your country as large as in the entire history of its existence, it has grown in the national forest of the American state of Oregon.

The mushroom covered 890 hectares of land, moreover, its age is from 2000 to 8000 years. Most of it is found underground in the form of massive tentacles called mycelium (the equivalent of the roots of common mushrooms). Initially, it was believed that there are just a lot of honey fungi growing in the forest, but later studies confirmed that this is one large organism.

8. Chameleons

Why do chameleons change their skin color?

Do not assume that a chameleon changes color depending on the location in which it is located. This is based on a number of emotional states that change frequently, so it should come as no surprise that sometimes the color of the chameleon does match the color of the environment. They change color when scared, during mating, when fighting with another chameleon, etc.

The chameleon rarely uses its ability to disguise itself, because their main prey, insects, have unsuitable eyesight in order to notice their death. It is worth noting that being at the highest level among predators of its kind, chameleons have no enemies in the animal kingdom.

7. Substance

How many states of matter are there?

Three, right? Solid, liquid and gaseous. In fact, there are more of them, almost 15. Although the list grows almost daily, here are some examples: amorphous solid, plasma, superhard, super-liquid, neutron, degenerate matter, strongly symmetric matter, weakly symmetric matter, quark-gluon plasma of fermionic condensate , Bose-Einstein condensate, “strange” substance, etc.

The most interesting of these is perhaps the Bose-Einstein condensate (or BEC), which occurs when a particular substance cools to a state below absolute zero (-273 degrees). For example, if you try to create a BEC in a glass and cool the glass to the desired temperature, the BEC will rise along the walls of the glass. This is due to the fact that what can only be seen at the level of atoms becomes visible at other levels.

6. The number of the beast

Devil’s number: what is it?

616. For 2000 years the number 666 was the number of the terrible Antichrist. It was unfortunate for many, even the European Parliament left its 666 seat vacant. This number was found in the Book of Revelation, the last book of the Christian Bible. However, in 2005 it was revealed that the translation of the earliest known copies of the book of revelation clearly shows that the number is 616, not 666!

An old copy of the book, which is more than 1700 years old, was found in the city of Oxyirinkus in Egypt, and it was deciphered by a paleographic team of scientists from the University of Birmingham, UK. The process was led by Professor David Parker.

5. Golden sky

What color was the sky in Ancient Greece?

Bronze! In ancient Greek, the word “blue” did not exist. The closest words to blue described the intensity of the color more than the color itself. Thus, when the Greeks spoke of the sky as bronze, they meant that it was dazzlingly bright, like the luster of a bronze shield, and not actually bronze in color. Apparently, the ancient Greeks described things based on other qualities, so when any word is used that in our opinion means “yellow” or “light green” in fact, it is simply a liquid, something living and fresh.

Moreover, such words were used to describe flowers, blood, sea, sheep, etc. It may seem to us that the Greeks, describing all these things, referred to the color yellow. Just like in Russian, for example, blue and blue for us are two different colors, in English they are one color, just different intensities. The same is the case with pink. In our culture, pink and red are different colors, and in some others, it’s just a shade of red.

4. Feelings

How many feelings does a person have?

At least nine. Everyone knows about five of them: sight, taste, hearing, smell and touch. For the first time, Aristotle told about them, however, now four more have been added, which, after agreement between scientists, were also officially adopted. Among them:

– thermoception is a sensation of a feeling of warmth (or lack thereof) on a person’s skin;

– ekvibriotseptsiya – our sense of balance, which is defined by fluid-filled cavities in our inner ear;

– nociception – our perception of pain;

– proprioception is the “understanding” of the body. It is our conscious awareness of where our body parts are without looking. For example, with our eyes closed, we can easily determine where our big toe is in relation to other parts of the body.

Some neurologists say that there are even more feelings than 9. What about hunger? Thirst?

3. Beyond the Boundary

What did people who lived in the Middle Ages think about the shape of the earth?

Wrong again. Already in the fourth century BC, almost no one believed that the earth was flat. This misconception that people did not know about the shape of the earth comes in part from The Life and Voyages of Christopher Columbus (1828), which incorrectly claimed that Columbus proved the earth to be round.

The truth is, no one disputed this theory. Experience shows that almost all cultures of the world, through mathematics or through ordinary observation, understood the spherical nature of the Earth.

2. Moth and flame

How does a moth react to light?

The moth is not attracted to light, it disorients him. This is because moths and moths use natural light sources such as the sun and moon to navigate. Insects measure the location of a light source from the sun or moon to determine which direction to move and how to fly in a straight line.

When artificial lights turn on in people’s bedrooms, it confuses insects, forcing them to move in a curved path, because the direction of the light source changes dramatically. To fix this, the moth tries to straighten the trajectory, but the light source is so close that the moth has no choice but to fly in a circle. And one more thing: the moth does not eat clothes, the caterpillar does it.

1. Henry VIII

How many wives did Henry VIII have?

Answer? Two, not six. Henry’s fourth marriage to Anna was annulled, so it was not completed. In other words, the marriage did not technically take place. Moreover, as it turned out, Anna was betrothed to Francis, Duke of Lorraine. At that time, “betrothal protected” from marriage. Therefore, there are five wives left. Henry’s second marriage to Anne Boleyn was declared illegal by the Pope, because the king at that time was married to his first wife, Catherine of Aragon.

Henry, the head of the Church of England, declared his first marriage null and void, based on the fact that a man could not sleep with his brother’s widow. He did the same with his fifth wife, Catherine Howard, eventually “leaving us” with two wives.

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